Fungal outbreak threatens tricolored bat with extinction (2023)

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(Video) Strategies for Wildlife Disease Surveillance: Case Study of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats

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  • Fungal outbreak threatens tricolored bat with extinction (3)


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    (Video) Save Our Bats: White-nose Syndrome

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self.config.uiLang\n });\n self.renderPermissionGuide(self);\n self.renderSpeechPanel(self);\n self.speechResult = '';\n self.noSpeech = true;\n self.isRecognitionStart = false;\n self.recognition = null;\n self.voiceButton = doc.querySelector(self.config.voiceButton);\n self.searchBoxForm = doc.querySelector(self.config.searchBox.form);\n self.searchBoxQuery = doc.querySelector(self.config.searchBox.input);\n self.speechPanel = doc.querySelector('#spch');\n self.speechButtonContainer = doc.querySelector('#spchbc');\n self.speechButton = doc.querySelector('#spchbc-btn');\n self.speechText = doc.querySelector('#spcht');\n self.speechOverlay = doc.getElementById('spch-overlay');\n self.retryLink = doc.querySelector('#spcht-retry');\n self.trending = doc.getElementById('spch-trending');\n self.trendingTerms = doc.getElementById('trending-terms');\n self.termSpans = doc.getElementsByClassName(\"trending-term\");\n self.closeButton = doc.querySelector('#spchx');\n self.startAudio = new Audio('');\n self.resultAudio = new Audio('');\n self.errorAudio = new Audio('');\n self.closeAudio = new Audio('');\n self.permissionGuide = doc.querySelector('#spchp');\n self.permissionGuideClose = doc.querySelector('#spchpx');\n self.permissionGuideTimer = null;\n\n self.onEscKeyDown = function (e) {\n if (e.code !== 'Escape') {\n return;\n }\n\n self.recognition.stop();\n self.sendBeacon('keybrd', 'voicesearch_cancel_esc'); // The clean up should put inside closePanel() instead of here,\n // or func won't be cleaned up if user close panel with btn or overlay\n\n self.closePanel(self);\n };\n\n if (self.isBrowserSupported()) {\n var SpeechRecognition = win.SpeechRecognition || win.webkitSpeechRecognition;\n var SpeechGrammarList = win.SpeechGrammarList || win.webkitSpeechGrammarList;\n var speechGrammar = '#JSGF V1.0;';\n self.recognition = new SpeechRecognition();\n var speechRecognitionList = new SpeechGrammarList();\n\n if (speechRecognitionList.addFromString) {\n speechRecognitionList.addFromString(speechGrammar, 1);\n }\n\n self.recognition.grammars = speechRecognitionList;\n self.recognition.continuous = false;\n self.recognition.lang = self.config.speechLang;\n self.recognition.interimResults = false;\n self.recognition.maxAlternatives = 1;\n /* Listeners */\n\n if (self.voiceButton) {\n self.voiceButton.onclick = function () {\n self.recognition.start();\n\n if (self.permissionGuideTimer) {\n win.clearTimeout(self.permissionGuideTimer);\n }\n\n self.permissionGuideTimer = win.setTimeout(function () {\n if (!self.isRecognitionStart) {\n self.showPermissionGuide(self);\n }\n }, 300); // Also close when pressing esc\n\n doc.addEventListener('keydown', self.onEscKeyDown);\n self.sendBeacon('clk', 'voicesearch');\n };\n }\n\n if (self.speechButton) {\n self.speechButton.onclick = function () {\n if (!self.isRecognitionStart) {\n self.recognition.start();\n self.sendBeacon('clk', 'voicesearch_panel_mic_restart');\n } else {\n self.recognition.stop();\n self.sendBeacon('clk', 'voicesearch_panel_mic_close');\n self.closePanel(self);\n }\n };\n }\n\n if (self.retryLink) {\n self.retryLink.onclick = function () {\n if (!self.isRecognitionStart) {\n self.recognition.start();\n self.sendBeacon('clk', 'voicesearch_panel_retry');\n }\n };\n }\n\n if (self.speechOverlay) {\n self.speechOverlay.onclick = function () {\n self.recognition.stop();\n self.sendBeacon('clk', 'voicesearch_cancel_outside');\n self.closePanel(self);\n };\n }\n\n if (self.closeButton) {\n self.closeButton.onclick = function\n /*event*/\n () {\n self.recognition.stop();\n self.sendBeacon('clk', 'voicesearch_cancel');\n self.closePanel(self);\n };\n }\n\n if (self.permissionGuideClose) {\n self.permissionGuideClose.onclick = function\n /*event*/\n () {\n self.recognition.stop();\n self.sendBeacon('clk', 'voicesearch_permission_close');\n;\n self.hidePermissionGuide(self);\n };\n }\n /* Recognition Events */\n\n\n self.recognition.onresult = function (event) {\n // The SpeechRecognitionEvent results property returns a SpeechRecognitionResultList object\n // The SpeechRecognitionResultList object contains SpeechRecognitionResult objects.\n // It has a getter so it can be accessed like an array\n // The first [0] returns the SpeechRecognitionResult at the last position.\n // Each SpeechRecognitionResult object contains SpeechRecognitionAlternative objects that contain individual results.\n // These also have getters so they can be accessed like arrays.\n // The second [0] returns the SpeechRecognitionAlternative at position 0.\n // We then return the transcript property of the SpeechRecognitionAlternative object\n // console.log('Confidence: ' + event.results[0][0].confidence);\n self.speechResult = event.results[0][0].transcript;\n /* Punctuation Handling: Check last character and strip it if necessary */\n\n self.handlePunctuation(self);\n\n if (self.speechText) {\n self.speechText.innerText = self.speechResult;\n }\n\n if (self.searchBoxQuery) {\n self.searchBoxQuery.value = self.speechResult;\n }\n\n;\n win.setTimeout(function () {\n if (self.speechPanel) {\n self.speechPanel.classList.remove(\"s2tb\");\n self.speechPanel.classList.add(\"s2tb-h\");\n }\n\n self.hideRetryLink(self);\n\n if (self.searchBoxForm) {\n var inputFr = self.searchBoxForm.querySelector('[name=fr]');\n var inputFr2 = self.searchBoxForm.querySelector('[name=fr2]');\n\n if (inputFr && self.config.searchBox && self.config.searchBox.params && {\n inputFr.value =;\n inputFr.disabled = false; // for homepage case\n }\n\n if (inputFr2 && self.config.searchBox && self.config.searchBox.params && self.config.searchBox.params.fr2) {\n inputFr2.value = config.searchBox.params.fr2;\n inputFr2.disabled = false; // for homepage case\n }\n\n self.searchBoxForm.submit();\n }\n }, 1000);\n };\n\n self.recognition.onspeechstart = function\n /*event*/\n () {// Fired when speech starts\n };\n\n self.recognition.onspeechend = function () {\n // Fired when speech ends\n self.recognition.stop();\n };\n\n self.recognition.onerror = function\n /*event*/\n () {\n // console.log('Error occurred in recognition: ' + event.error);\n if (self.speechText) {\n self.speechText.innerText = self.i18n.t('search.voice.recognition_error');\n }\n\n self.hideTrending(self);\n self.showRetryLink(self);\n;\n };\n\n self.recognition.onaudiostart = function\n /*event*/\n () {\n // Fired when the user agent has started to capture audio.\n if (self.speechButtonContainer) {\n self.speechButtonContainer.classList.add(\"listening\");\n }\n };\n\n self.recognition.onaudioend = function\n /*event*/\n () {\n // Fired when the user agent has finished capturing audio.\n if (self.speechButtonContainer) {\n self.speechButtonContainer.classList.remove(\"listening\");\n }\n };\n\n self.recognition.onsoundstart = function\n /*event*/\n () {\n // Fired when any sound — recognisable speech or not — has been detected.\n self.hideTrending(self);\n self.noSpeech = false;\n\n if (self.speechButtonContainer) {\n self.speechButtonContainer.classList.remove(\"listening\");\n self.speechButtonContainer.classList.add(\"speaking\");\n }\n };\n\n self.recognition.onsoundend = function\n /*event*/\n () {\n // Fired when no sound present\n if (self.speechButtonContainer) {\n self.speechButtonContainer.classList.remove(\"speaking\");\n }\n };\n\n self.recognition.onstart = function\n /*event*/\n () {\n // Fired when the speech recognition service has begun listening\n self.recognitionInit(self);\n self.startRecognition(self);\n };\n\n self.recognition.onend = function\n /*event*/\n () {\n // Fired when the speech recognition service has disconnected.\n self.isRecognitionStart = false;\n\n if (self.noSpeech == false && self.speechResult == '') {\n // No match: Fired when the speech recognition can't recognise speech\n if (self.speechText) {\n self.speechText.innerText = self.i18n.t('search.voice.recognition_nomatch');\n }\n\n self.hideTrending(self);\n self.showRetryLink(self);\n;\n }\n }; // trigger onReady event when initialized\n\n\n if (document && document.dispatchEvent) {\n document.dispatchEvent(new Event('VOICE_JS_READY'));\n }\n }\n } // static members\n\n\n VoiceSearch.I18n = I18n; // instance members\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.renderPermissionGuide = function (self) {\n var tmpl = \"\\n




    \\n \");\n var dom = new DOMParser().parseFromString(tmpl, 'text/html');\n document.body.appendChild(dom.body.children[0]);\n };\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.renderSpeechPanel = function (self) {\n var tmpl = \"\\n



    (Video) Conservation Lecture Series White Nose Syndrome




    \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n



    \\n \\n \\n \".concat(self.i18n.t('search.voice.recognition_retry'), \"\\n






    \\n \").concat(self.i18n.t('search.voice.trending_title'), \"\\n \\n



    \\n \");\n var dom = new DOMParser().parseFromString(tmpl, 'text/html');\n\n if (self && self.config && self.config.ui && self.config.ui.speechOverlay && self.config.ui.speechOverlay.disableBlur) {\n dom.body.children[0].classList.add('disable-blur-overlay');\n }\n\n document.body.appendChild(dom.body.children[0]);\n };\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.isBrowserSupported = function () {\n var isSupported = false;\n var self = this;\n var isChromium = Boolean(;\n var isIOSChrome = /CriOS/.test(window.navigator.userAgent);\n var isEdge = /Edg\\//.test(window.navigator.userAgent);\n var isLegacyEdge = /Edge\\//.test(window.navigator.userAgent);\n var isOpera = Boolean(window.opr);\n var isBrave = Boolean(window.navigator.brave);\n var browsers = [// chrome\n {\n checkEnabled: function checkEnabled() {\n return true;\n },\n checkBrowser: function checkBrowser() {\n return isChromium && !isIOSChrome && !isEdge && !isOpera && !isBrave;\n },\n checkAPI: function checkAPI() {\n return win && ('SpeechRecognition' in win || 'webkitSpeechRecognition' in win) && ('SpeechGrammarList' in win || 'webkitSpeechGrammarList' in win);\n }\n }, // edge\n {\n checkEnabled: function checkEnabled() {\n return self && self.config && self.config.browsers && self.config.browsers.edge;\n },\n checkBrowser: function checkBrowser() {\n return isChromium && isEdge && !isLegacyEdge;\n },\n checkAPI: function checkAPI() {\n return win && ('SpeechRecognition' in win || 'webkitSpeechRecognition' in win) && ('SpeechGrammarList' in win || 'webkitSpeechGrammarList' in win);\n }\n }];\n\n for (var b = 0; b < browsers.length; b++) {\n var browser = browsers[b];\n\n if (browser && browser.checkBrowser && browser.checkBrowser() && browser.checkEnabled && browser.checkEnabled(self) && browser.checkAPI && browser.checkAPI()) {\n isSupported = true;\n }\n }\n\n return isSupported;\n };\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.recognitionInit = function (self) {\n // Initialize flags for checking whether user is speaking or not\n self.speechResult = '';\n self.noSpeech = true;\n self.isRecognitionStart = true;\n };\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.showPermissionGuide = function (self) {\n if (self.permissionGuide) {\n self.permissionGuide.classList.remove(\"hide\");\n }\n };\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.hidePermissionGuide = function (self) {\n if (self.permissionGuide) {\n self.permissionGuide.classList.add(\"hide\");\n }\n };\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.getTrending = function (self) {\n // Call api for trending terms\n if (!self.config.enable_voice_trending || !self.trending) {\n return;\n }\n\n var url = \"\" + + \"&features=trending.voice\";\n self.ajaxReq(url, function (resBody) {\n if (!resBody || !resBody.response || ! || ! || ![\"trending.voice\"]) {\n return;\n }\n\n var terms =[\"trending.voice\"].data;\n self.showTrending(self, terms);\n });\n };\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.showTrending = function (self, terms) {\n // params check\n if (!Array.isArray(terms) || terms.length < 3) {\n return;\n } // DOM check\n\n\n if (!self.trending || !self.termSpans || !self.termSpans[0]) {\n return;\n }\n\n var trendingLabel = '';\n trendingLabel += '\"' + terms[0].text + '\"' + ', ';\n trendingLabel += '\"' + terms[1].text + '\"' + ' ';\n trendingLabel += self.i18n.t('search.voice.trending_or') + ' ';\n trendingLabel += '\"' + terms[2].text + '\"';\n self.termSpans[0].innerText = trendingLabel;\n self.trending.classList.remove(\"hide\");\n };\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.hideTrending = function (self) {\n if (!self.trending) {\n return;\n }\n\n self.trending.classList.add(\"hide\");\n };\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.showRetryLink = function (self) {\n if (self.retryLink) {\n self.retryLink.innerText = self.i18n.t('search.voice.recognition_retry');\n self.retryLink.classList.remove(\"hide\");\n }\n };\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.hideRetryLink = function (self) {\n if (self.retryLink) {\n self.retryLink.classList.add(\"hide\");\n }\n };\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.startRecognition = function (self) {\n self.hidePermissionGuide(self);\n self.getTrending(self);\n;\n\n if (self.speechText) {\n self.speechText.innerText = self.i18n.t('search.voice.recognition_start');\n win.setTimeout(function () {\n self.speechText.innerText = self.i18n.t('search.voice.recognition_listening');\n }, 2000);\n }\n\n if (self.speechPanel) {\n self.speechPanel.classList.remove(\"s2tb-h\");\n self.speechPanel.classList.add(\"s2tb\");\n }\n\n self.hideRetryLink(self);\n };\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.closePanel = function (self) {\n;\n win.setTimeout(function () {\n if (self.speechPanel) {\n self.speechPanel.classList.remove(\"s2tb\");\n self.speechPanel.classList.add(\"s2tb-h\");\n }\n\n self.hideTrending(self);\n self.hideRetryLink(self); // clean up esc listener\n\n doc.removeEventListener('keydown', self.onEscKeyDown);\n }, 100);\n };\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.handlePunctuation = function (self) {\n if (self.speechResult.length > 0) {\n var lastChar = self.speechResult.charAt(self.speechResult.length - 1);\n\n if (lastChar === '.' || lastChar === '?' || lastChar === '。' || lastChar === '?') {\n self.speechResult = self.speechResult.slice(0, -1);\n }\n }\n };\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.sendBeacon = function (actn, slk) {\n var ULT = win.YAHOO.ULT || {},\n SB = win.YAHOO.SB || {};\n\n if (ULT.beacon_click) {\n var trackParams = {\n _S: SB.config.i13n.spaceid,\n _I: SB.config.i13n.pvid,\n actn: actn,\n sec: 'search',\n slk: slk\n };\n win.YAHOO.ULT.beacon_click(trackParams);\n }\n };\n\n VoiceSearch.prototype.ajaxReq = function (url, callback) {\n var DONE_STATE = XMLHttpRequest.DONE || 4; // for IE-compatibility\n\n var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();\n var responseRaw;\n var response; // CORS request only for IE8/IE9\n\n if (doc.documentMode && doc.documentMode < 10) {\n var xdr = new win.XDomainRequest();\n\n xdr.onload = function () {\n try {\n response = JSON.parse(responseRaw);\n callback(response);\n } catch (err) {\n return;\n }\n };\n\n'GET', url);\n xhr.send();\n return;\n } // CORS request for browers newer than IE9\n\n\n xhr.onreadystatechange = function () {\n if (xhr.readyState !== DONE_STATE) {\n return;\n } // handle ajax response\n\n\n switch (xhr.status) {\n case 200:\n responseRaw = xhr.responseText;\n\n try {\n response = JSON.parse(responseRaw);\n callback(response);\n } catch (err) {\n return;\n }\n\n break;\n\n default:\n // non-200 status code: retry or assume failure\n callback(response);\n break;\n }\n };\n\n'GET', url, true);\n /* aync request */\n\n xhr.timeout = 10000;\n xhr.send();\n };\n\n if (!win.YAHOO) {\n win.YAHOO = {};\n }\n\n if (!win.YAHOO.Util) {\n win.YAHOO.Util = {};\n }\n\n win.YAHOO.Util.VoiceSearch = VoiceSearch;\n})(window, document);\n\n//# sourceURL=webpack://@vzmi/voicejs/./src/index.js?")},"./src/lib/I18n.js":/*!*************************!*\ !*** ./src/lib/I18n.js ***! \*************************/function(module,__unused_webpack_exports,__webpack_require__){eval("module.exports = function () {\n var LANG_LIST = __webpack_require__(/*! ./lang_list.json */ \"./src/lib/lang_list.json\");\n\n var DEFAULT_LANG = 'default';\n\n var isValidLang = function isValidLang(lang) {\n return LANG_LIST.indexOf(lang) !== -1;\n }; // convert language strings to key-value map\n\n\n var buildStrMap = function buildStrMap(langStrings) {\n return langStrings.reduce(function (strMap, item) {\n strMap[] = item.defaultMessage;\n return strMap;\n }, {});\n };\n\n var I18n = function I18n(options) {\n // initialize\n this.lang = isValidLang(options && options.lang) ? options.lang : DEFAULT_LANG;\n }; // static members\n\n\n I18n.langMap = {};\n I18n.langMap[DEFAULT_LANG] = buildStrMap(__webpack_require__(/*! ../lang/strings.json */ \"./src/lang/strings.json\"));\n\n I18n.setLangMap = function (lang, strings) {\n if (lang && strings) {\n I18n.langMap[lang] = buildStrMap(strings);\n }\n }; // instance members\n\n\n I18n.prototype = {\n t: function t(id) {\n switch (true) {\n // look up target language\n case Boolean(I18n.langMap && I18n.langMap[this.lang] && I18n.langMap[this.lang][id]):\n return I18n.langMap[this.lang][id];\n // fallback to default strings\n\n case Boolean(I18n.langMap && I18n.langMap[DEFAULT_LANG] && I18n.langMap[DEFAULT_LANG][id]):\n return I18n.langMap[DEFAULT_LANG][id];\n\n default:\n return '';\n }\n }\n };\n return I18n;\n}();\n\n//# sourceURL=webpack://@vzmi/voicejs/./src/lib/I18n.js?")},"./node_modules/css-loader/dist/cjs.js!./node_modules/postcss-loader/dist/cjs.js!./src/index.css":/*!*******************************************************************************************************!*\ !*** ./node_modules/css-loader/dist/cjs.js!./node_modules/postcss-loader/dist/cjs.js!./src/index.css ***! \*******************************************************************************************************/function(module,__webpack_exports__,__webpack_require__){eval('__webpack_require__.r(__webpack_exports__);\n/* harmony import */ var _node_modules_css_loader_dist_runtime_api_js__WEBPACK_IMPORTED_MODULE_0__ = __webpack_require__(/*! ../node_modules/css-loader/dist/runtime/api.js */ "./node_modules/css-loader/dist/runtime/api.js");\n/* harmony import */ var _node_modules_css_loader_dist_runtime_api_js__WEBPACK_IMPORTED_MODULE_0___default = /*#__PURE__*/__webpack_require__.n(_node_modules_css_loader_dist_runtime_api_js__WEBPACK_IMPORTED_MODULE_0__);\n// Imports\n\nvar ___CSS_LOADER_EXPORT___ = _node_modules_css_loader_dist_runtime_api_js__WEBPACK_IMPORTED_MODULE_0___default()(function(i){return i[1]});\n// Module\n___CSS_LOADER_EXPORT___.push([, "/* Sprites */\\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide .microphone .sprite,\\n#spchp .close-button,\\n#spch .close-button,\\n#spch .spchc .microphone,\\n#spch .spchc .speaking .microphone {\\n background-image: url(;\\n background-repeat: no-repeat;\\n background-size: initial;\\n color: transparent;\\n}\\n/* Retina displays */\\n@media\\n only screen and (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2),\\n only screen and (min-device-pixel-ratio: 2),\\n only screen and (min-resolution: 192dpi),\\n only screen and (min-resolution: 2dppx) {\\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide .microphone .sprite,\\n#spchp .close-button,\\n#spch .close-button,\\n#spch .spchc .microphone,\\n#spch .spchc .speaking .microphone {\\n background-size: 41px 330px;\\n background-image: url(\\n}\\n }\\n\\n/* permission guide */\\n#spchp.permission-guide {\\n height: 100%;\\n width: 100%;\\n padding: 0;\\n opacity: 0.9;\\n background-color: #fff;\\n left: 0;\\n overflow: hidden;\\n position: fixed;\\n text-align: left;\\n top: 0;\\n z-index: 10000;\\n transition: visibility 0s linear 0.218s, background-color 0.218s;\\n}\\n#spchp.permission-guide .close-button {\\n background-position: 0 0;\\n width: 24px;\\n height: 24px;\\n border: none;\\n cursor: pointer;\\n right: 0;\\n margin: 20px;\\n padding: 0;\\n position: absolute;\\n top: 0;\\n z-index: 10;\\n opacity: 0.8;\\n }\\n#spchp.permission-guide .close-button:hover {\\n opacity: 1;\\n }\\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide {\\n margin: 191px 0 0 507px;\\n }\\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide .microphone {\\n height: 68px;\\n width: 52px;\\n border-right: 1px solid #232a31;\\n float: left;\\n }\\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide .microphone .sprite {\\n background-position: 0 -105px;\\n width: 28px;\\n height: 28px;\\n }\\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide .guide-text {\\n height: 68px;\\n margin-left: 24px;\\n float: left;\\n }\\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide .guide-text .title {\\n color: #232a31;\\n font-size: 32px;\\n font-family: HelveticaNeue-Bold;\\n line-height: 28px;\\n margin-bottom: 16px;\\n }\\n#spchp.permission-guide .guide .guide-text .text {\\n color: #232a31;\\n font-size: 16px;\\n line-height: 28px;\\n }\\n#spchp.permission-guide.hide {\\n display: none;\\n }\\n\\n/* speech panel */\\n#spch.spch {\\n background: #fff;\\n height: 100%;\\n left: 0;\\n opacity: 0;\\n overflow: hidden;\\n position: fixed;\\n text-align: left;\\n top: 0;\\n visibility: hidden;\\n width: 100%;\\n z-index: 10000;\\n transition: visibility 0s linear 0.218s, background-color 0.218s;\\n}\\n#spch.spch .close-button {\\n background-position: 0 0;\\n width: 24px;\\n height: 24px;\\n border: none;\\n cursor: pointer;\\n right: 0;\\n margin: 20px;\\n padding: 0;\\n position: absolute;\\n top: 0;\\n z-index: 10;\\n opacity: 0.8;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .close-button:hover {\\n opacity: 1;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc {\\n display: block;\\n height: 97px;\\n pointer-events: none;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container {\\n width: 100%;\\n height: 100%;\\n opacity: 0.1;\\n pointer-events: none;\\n transition: opacity 0.318s ease-in;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .spch-control {\\n display: inline-block;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .text-container {\\n float: left;\\n height: 91px;\\n overflow: hidden;\\n margin: 3px 0;\\n pointer-events: none;\\n width: calc(50% - 48.5px);\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .text-container p {\\n display: table-cell;\\n vertical-align: middle;\\n width: 550px;\\n height: 97px;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .text-container .spcht {\\n font-weight: normal;\\n color: #6e7780;\\n line-height: normal;\\n opacity: 0;\\n pointer-events: none;\\n text-align: left;\\n -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;\\n transition: opacity 0.1s ease-in, margin-left 0.5s ease-in, top 0s linear 0.218s;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .text-container .spcht.hide {\\n display: none;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .text-container #spcht-retry {\\n color: #0f69ff;\\n cursor: pointer;\\n pointer-events: auto;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container {\\n pointer-events: none;\\n position: relative;\\n transition: transform 0.218s, opacity 0.218s ease-in;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container .button {\\n background-color: #fff;\\n border: 1px solid #eee;\\n border-radius: 100%;\\n bottom: 0;\\n box-shadow: 0 2px 5px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.1);\\n cursor: pointer;\\n display: inline-block;\\n left: 0;\\n opacity: 0;\\n pointer-events: none;\\n position: absolute;\\n right: 0;\\n top: 0;\\n transition: background-color 0.218s, border 0.218s, box-shadow 0.218s;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container .button .microphone {\\n background-position: 0 -24px;\\n width: 41px;\\n height: 41px;\\n left: 27px;\\n pointer-events: none;\\n position: absolute;\\n top: 27px;\\n transform: scale(1);\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.listening .ripple {\\n position: absolute;\\n width: 136px;\\n height: 136px;\\n z-index: -1;\\n left: 50%;\\n top: 50%;\\n opacity: 0;\\n margin: -70px 0 0 -70px;\\n border-radius: 100px;\\n -webkit-animation: ripple 3.3s infinite;\\n animation: ripple 3.3s infinite;\\n background-color: #fff !important;\\n border: 2px solid #e0e4e9;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.listening .ripple:nth-child(2) {\\n -webkit-animation-delay: 1.1s;\\n animation-delay: 1.1s;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.listening .ripple:nth-child(3) {\\n -webkit-animation-delay: 2.2s;\\n animation-delay: 2.2s;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.speaking .button {\\n background-color: #0f69ff;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.speaking .button .microphone {\\n background-position: 0 -65px;\\n width: 40px;\\n height: 40px;\\n pointer-events: none;\\n position: absolute;\\n transform: scale(1);\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.speaking .ripple {\\n background-size: 114px;\\n position: absolute;\\n width: 114px;\\n height: 114px;\\n z-index: -1;\\n left: 50%;\\n top: 50%;\\n margin: -57px 0 0 -57px;\\n -webkit-animation: speakingRipple1 2s infinite;\\n animation: speakingRipple1 2s infinite;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.speaking .ripple:nth-child(2) {\\n background-size: 123px;\\n width: 123px;\\n height: 123px;\\n margin: -62px 0 0 -62px;\\n -webkit-animation: speakingRipple2 2s infinite;\\n animation: speakingRipple2 2s infinite;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spchc .inner-container .button-container.speaking .ripple:nth-child(3) {\\n background-size: 136px;\\n width: 136px;\\n height: 136px;\\n margin: -68px 0 0 -68px;\\n -webkit-animation: speakingRipple3 2s infinite;\\n animation: speakingRipple3 2s infinite;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spcho {\\n background-image: linear-gradient(to bottom, rgb(255, 255, 255) 50%, rgba(255, 255, 255, 0) 99%);\\n display: block;\\n min-width: 100%;\\n text-align: center;\\n top: 145px;\\n padding-bottom: 71px;\\n pointer-events: auto;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spcho #spch-trending {\\n -webkit-animation: fadeIn 1s forwards;\\n animation: fadeIn 1s forwards;\\n opacity: 0;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spcho #spch-trending .trending {\\n color: #6e7780;\\n display: inline-block;\\n font-size: 16px;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spcho #spch-trending #trending-label {\\n font-weight: bold;\\n margin: 5px 5px;\\n }\\n#spch.spch .spcho #spch-trending.hide {\\n display: none;\\n }\\n#spch.spch.s2tb .spchc, #spch.spch.s2tb-h .spchc {\\n background: #fff;\\n box-sizing: border-box;\\n box-shadow: 0 2px 6px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2);\\n height: auto;\\n margin: 0;\\n min-width: 100%;\\n overflow: hidden;\\n padding: 24px 115px;\\n }\\n#spch.spch.s2tb .spchc .inner-container, #spch.spch.s2tb-h .spchc .inner-container {\\n opacity: 1;\\n transition: opacity 0.318s ease-in;\\n }\\n#spch.spch.s2tb .spchc .inner-container .text-container, #spch.spch.s2tb-h .spchc .inner-container .text-container {\\n position: relative;\\n }\\n#spch.spch.s2tb {\\n background: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0);\\n opacity: 1;\\n visibility: visible;\\n transition-delay: 0s;\\n }\\n#spch.spch.s2tb .spchc .inner-container .button-container {\\n transform: scale(1);\\n height: 97px;\\n right: 0;\\n top: 0;\\n width: 97px;\\n }\\n#spch.spch.s2tb .spchc .inner-container .button-container .button {\\n opacity: 1;\\n pointer-events: auto;\\n position: absolute;\\n transform: scale(1);\\n transition-delay: 0;\\n }\\n#spch.spch.s2tb .spchc .inner-container .text-container .spcht {\\n font-size: 24px;\\n margin-left: 0;\\n opacity: 1;\\n transition: opacity 0.5s ease-out, margin-left 0.5s ease-out;\\n }\\n#spch.spch.s2tb #spch-overlay {\\n -webkit-backdrop-filter: blur(10px);\\n backdrop-filter: blur(10px);\\n background-color: #fff;\\n height: 100%;\\n opacity: 0.9;\\n position: absolute;\\n top: 149px;\\n\\n /* spchc\'s height */\\n width: 100%;\\n }\\n#spch.spch.disable-blur-overlay #spch-overlay {\\n background-color: transparent;\\n -webkit-backdrop-filter: none;\\n backdrop-filter: none;\\n }\\n#spch.spch.disable-blur-overlay .spcho {\\n height: 27px;\\n padding-bottom: 20px;\\n background: #fff;\\n background-image: none;\\n box-shadow: 0 8px 6px -6px rgb(0 0 0 / 20%);\\n }\\n#spch.spch.s2tb-h {\\n background: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0);\\n opacity: 0;\\n visibility: hidden;\\n }\\n\\n@-webkit-keyframes fadeIn {\\n 0% {\\n opacity: 0;\\n }\\n\\n 100% {\\n opacity: 1;\\n }\\n}\\n\\n@keyframes fadeIn {\\n 0% {\\n opacity: 0;\\n }\\n\\n 100% {\\n opacity: 1;\\n }\\n}\\n\\n@-webkit-keyframes ripple {\\n 0% {\\n opacity: 1;\\n transform: scale(0.7);\\n }\\n\\n 100% {\\n opacity: 0;\\n transform: scale(1);\\n }\\n}\\n\\n@keyframes ripple {\\n 0% {\\n opacity: 1;\\n transform: scale(0.7);\\n }\\n\\n 100% {\\n opacity: 0;\\n transform: scale(1);\\n }\\n}\\n\\n@-webkit-keyframes speakingRipple1 {\\n 0%,\\n 100% {\\n background-image: url(\\"\\");\\n }\\n\\n 25%,\\n 75% {\\n background-image: url(\\"\\");\\n transform: scale(1.1);\\n }\\n\\n 50% {\\n background-image: url(\\"\\");\\n transform: scale(0.9);\\n }\\n}\\n\\n@keyframes speakingRipple1 {\\n 0%,\\n 100% {\\n background-image: url(\\"\\");\\n }\\n\\n 25%,\\n 75% {\\n background-image: url(\\"\\");\\n transform: scale(1.1);\\n }\\n\\n 50% {\\n background-image: 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    What is causing bats to go extinct? ›

    Sadly, many bat species around the world are vulnerable or endangered due to factors ranging from loss and fragmentation of habitat, diminished food supply, destruction of roosts, disease and hunting or killing of bats. In the UK, bat populations have declined considerably over the last century.

    Is the tricolored bat endangered? ›

    On September 13, 2022 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced a proposal to list the tricolored bat as endangered under the Endangered Species Act.

    Are any bat species in danger of extinction? ›

    *The five species listed by the IUCN as endangered are the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis), Gray bat (M. grisescens), Big-eared bat (Plecotus townsendii), Sanborn's long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris sanborni) and the Mexican long-nosed bat (L. nivalis).

    Why is the tri colored bat important? ›

    Tri-colored bats are among the first to emerge at dusk, darting around the treetops in search of moths, beetles, mosquitoes, midges, bugs, ants and other insects. The bats penchant for grain moths and beetles suggests that it holds important agricultural value.

    What is the biggest threat to bats? ›

    The devastating disease called white-nose syndrome, windmill turbines, habitat loss, and climate change have caused large numbers of bats to die.

    What disease kills bats? ›

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is the fungal disease killing bats in North America. Research indicates the fungus that causes WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is likely exotic, introduced from Europe.

    Why are little brown bats endangered? ›

    Sadly, little brown bats are one of the three bats most threatened by White-nose Syndrome (WNS), a deadly fungal disease, caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. The fungus is rapidly spreading throughout North America and has killed millions of bats over the past decade.

    What is the most colorful bat? ›

    Tricolored bat
    Genus:Perimyotis Menu, 1984
    Species:P. subflavus
    14 more rows

    Are pipistrelle bats endangered? ›

    What happens if bats go extinct? ›

    Without pollinating and seed-dispersing bats, many ecosystems would gradually die. Plants would fail to provide food and cover for wildlife species near the base of the food chain. If these plants die, wildlife will die, causing entire ecosystems to deteriorate.

    Do you think bats are on the verge of extinction? ›

    Today, bats are under unprecedented threat from widespread habitat destruction, accelerated climate change, invasive species, and other stresses. Without concerted international action, their populations will continue to fall, driving many species to extinction.

    What is killing bats in North America? ›

    White-nose Syndrome mostly affects hibernating bats. More than half of the 47 bat species living in the United States and Canada hibernate to survive the winter. Twelve bat species, including two endangered species and one threatened species, have been confirmed with white-nose syndrome in North America.

    Are bats blind? ›

    No, bats are not blind. Bats have small eyes with very sensitive vision, which helps them see in conditions we might consider pitch black. They don't have the sharp and colorful vision humans have, but they don't need that.

    What do tri Coloured bats eat? ›

    Tri-colored Bats eat flying insects and spiders gleaned from webs. At the end of the summer they travel to a location where they swarm; it is generally near the cave or underground location where they will overwinter.

    Are little brown bats federally protected? ›

    In 2010, Kunz and Reichard published a report arguing that the precipitous decline of the little brown bat justified its emergency listing as a federally endangered species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    How can we protect bats from extinction? ›

    How you can help
    1. Be a bat ambassador and spread the word. ...
    2. Turn off unnecessary lights and watch for bats. ...
    3. Promote natural habitat around your home. ...
    4. Feed hungry bats by minimizing the use of pesticides in your yard. ...
    5. Provide shelter by installing a bat box. ...
    6. Avoid disturbing bats. ...
    7. Remove unwanted bats humanely.

    How do humans impact bats? ›

    Many bats are under severe threat from increasing human pressures. Globally, the main threats to bats include habitat loss and degradation, climate change, overexploitation, disease, disturbance and persecution.

    Why are Indiana bats going extinct? ›

    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) is both a state and federally endangered species. The species was listed in the late 1960s due to human disturbance of caves that bats use for winter hibernating. Indiana bats are vulnerable to these disturbances as they hibernate in large colonies in very few caves.

    What does it mean when you find a dead bat? ›

    Bats are often feared due to their superstitious associations, however bats – in particular dead bats – hold deep symbolism. They are a sign of a difficult moment coming to an end, allowing closure and healing. The dead bat is a sign of change and accepting that change is inevitable and not always a bad thing.

    Can humans get white-nose syndrome? ›

    Thousands of people have visited affected caves and mines since White-nose Syndrome (WNS) was first observed, and there have been no reported human illnesses attributable to WNS. We are still learning about WNS, but we know of no risk to humans from contact with WNS-affected bats.

    What kills white-nose syndrome? ›

    Is there a cure for white-nose syndrome? No and because the fungus that causes white-nose syndrome is now established in North America, it is unlikely that it will go away. The focus is not on a single cure, but on several tools such as treating bats or changing environments that will help bats survive.

    What eats a brown bat? ›

    A variety of wild mammals, birds, and snakes will incorporate these bats into their diets, because the large colony sizes make them easy to catch. Domestic cats are a major predator of bats that roost near people. To locate their prey, most insect-eating bats use a system called echolocation.

    What predators eat bats? ›

    Bats have few natural predators — disease is one of the biggest threats. Owls, hawks and snakes eat bats, but that's nothing compared to the millions of bats dying from white-nose syndrome.

    Do bats carry rabies? ›

    Bats are one of the most commonly reported rabid animal in the United States. Bats are the leading cause of rabies deaths in people in the United States. If you find a bat in your home, try to capture it for testing. By testing the bat for rabies, you can find out if you need to be vaccinated.

    Which US state has the most bats? ›

    Texas happens to be the battiest state in the country. It is home to 32 of the 47 species of bats found in the United States.

    What is the smartest bat? ›

    What is the smartest bat? Flying foxes or fruit bats are among the largest and smartest bats. In comparison to other species, flying foxes have displayed the highest level of intelligence. As well as the biggest brain size relative to body size.

    Can a bat be a pet? ›

    A bat in the wild can live up to 30 years while only a few pet bats will make it to a year. Bats need special care, housing, and nutrition. They are complicated animals, making it almost impossible to take care of them properly even if you wanted to.

    Do pipistrelle bats carry rabies? ›

    Rabies has not been found in pipistrelles – the type of bat most commonly found in UK homes. However, as a precautionary measure, PHE recommends a course of rabies vaccine for people who have been bitten by any species of bat. Bat bites and scratches are often felt and not seen.

    How many bats are endangered? ›

    More than 200 bat species in 60 countries around the world are considered threatened (Critically Endangered, Endangered, or Vulnerable) by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

    Is the lesser horseshoe bat endangered? ›

    Is there anywhere in the world without bats? ›

    The only places on Earth with no bats are the Arctic, Antarctic and a few isolated Oceanic islands. The tropics have the biggest variety of bat species: Indonesia has 175 species of bats (about ten times the number of species found in the UK).

    Are bats friendly to humans? ›

    They are only aggressive when they're frightened or provoked. While you should always treat any bat you come into contact with as a wild animal, they are gentle.

    What do bats need to survive? ›

    In order to survive, insectivorous bats need insects to eat, water to drink, places to sleep and raise their young (called roosts), and places to hibernate. Places where bats hunt for insects are called foraging habitats.

    Can bats survive without oxygen? ›

    Bats are able to live in suspended animation for as long as six months, during which they cut their oxygen intake by nearly 98 percent. Some species can go to even greater extremes.

    How long can bats live without water? ›

    If there is no food or water, a bat trapped in a house will die within 24 hours. Even after it is dead, you should not touch or go near the bat. Some animals seem scarier than they are, but bats are every bit as dangerous as they seem.

    Why bats should be protected? ›

    Bats are of major environmental significance due to being important indicators of how well an ecosystem is doing. They are warm-blooded, suckle their young, and only have one pup a year, which means the population growth can decline dramatically if weather is particularly harsh and the pups are not able to survive.

    How many bats have died from white-nose syndrome? ›

    White-nose syndrome has killed over 90% of northern long-eared, little brown and tri-colored bat populations in fewer than 10 years, according to a new study published in Conservation Biology. Researchers also noted declines in Indiana bat and big brown bat populations.

    Are bats recovering from white-nose syndrome? ›

    The disease has caused populations to decline by about 78 percent, killing many hibernating colonies. Still, some populations appear to be recovering after significant declines, likely due to increased disease resistance.

    Is white-nose syndrome still a problem? ›

    White-nose syndrome is a serious threat to hibernating bats in North America. Since 2006, it has steadily spread south and west from New York State. Millions of bats, up to 100 percent of some populations, have died due to this fungal disease.

    Can bats hear? ›

    Bats navigate and find insect prey using echolocation. They produce sound waves at frequencies above human hearing, called ultrasound. The sound waves emitted by bats bounce off objects in their environment.

    Do bats bite people? ›

    Bats do not bite unless they are provoked. Even the occasional rabid bat seldom becomes aggressive. However, since bats are a rabies vector species in most places and, like all wild animals, can bite to defend themselves, it is crucial to take all necessary precautions to avoid a potential exposure to the virus.

    How do bats fly if they can't see? ›

    The myth that they are blind may stem from the fact that bats often fly very close to objects, but that's a matter of curiosity more than bad eyesight, the park service reports. And bats don't rely on their eyesight to navigate in flight because they use their echolocation.

    Where do tricolored bats live? ›

    HABITAT: Tricolored bats appear to inhabit landscapes that are partly open, with large trees and plentiful woodland edges. They are found in a variety of terrestrial habitats, including grasslands, old fields, suburban areas, orchards, urban areas and woodlands, especially hardwood woodlands.

    How many babies does a pipistrelle bat have? ›

    Typically, they have one young, known as a pup, which is able to fly at around three weeks old and become fully independent two to three weeks later.

    How long do little brown bats live? ›

    The little brown bat is long-lived for its size, and lives over 10 years in most cases (Barbour and Davis 1969).

    Where would a bat hide during the day in my house? ›

    Bats will most likely land somewhere they can hang—behind curtains or upholstered furniture, on hanging clothes or in house plants. Carefully place a plastic tub or similar container over them. Gently work a piece of cardboard or stiff paper under the container, trapping the bat inside.

    Do little brown bats eat mice? ›

    Do bats eat mice? The majority of bats eat only insects, while around a third of bat species eat fruit and nectar. A very small percentage of bats eat small vertebrates such as mice, fish, and frogs.

    How common are bats in houses? ›

    Most of the people that call us have had at least two or three instances of bats in the house over the last few years though. Multiple bats in your house is a very strong indication of an infestation. Most bat colonies found in houses are maternal colonies.

    Do tri colored bats hibernate? ›

    They require specific habitats for hibernating, roosting and foraging. These bats will hibernate in caves, mines and even buildings with variations in hibernation site selection by region. For example, tricolored bats in the northern part of their range hibernate almost exclusively in caves and mines.

    What color can bats be? ›

    Bats can be a range of colors, including red, tan, brown, and gray. A bat's ears are very important because bats use them to hunt for food.

    How long do little brown bats live? ›

    The little brown bat is long-lived for its size, and lives over 10 years in most cases (Barbour and Davis 1969).

    Where is the northern long eared bat located? ›

    The northern long-eared bat is found across much of the eastern and north central United States and all Canadian provinces from the Atlantic coast west to the southern Northwest Territories and eastern British Columbia. The species' range includes 37 states.


    1. Kilpatrick Talk UCSC Emeriti Luncheon
    (UCSC Emeriti Association)
    2. 2020 Creepy Critters Series - Bats
    (UGA Cobb County Extension)
    3. Evening Lecture "Bats" with Trina Morris
    (Coastal WildScapes)
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